## Wrong for Students

**Potential Student impact of providing two separate pathways:**

- The bill does not preclude students/parents from changing their minds about which course sequence mid-pathway. Changing back and forth between course sequences will create gaps, potentially require an additional course work and thus compromise on-time graduation.
- The exclusion of the CTE 4th level math options will prevent many NC students from obtaining a HS diploma through a route specific to their career pathway.

**ACT**

- NC students completing the integrated mathematics courses and one additional course scored on average 4.2 points higher on the math portion of the ACT in 2015 than those taking Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra II, and another advanced mathematics course and were the only group of students to be considered College and Career Ready. In 2014, they scored 4.5 points higher on average (http://www.act.org)
- Reverting to standards similar to the 2003 SCOS would not best prepare our students for the ACT and other standardized test based largely off of “career and college readiness standards.” The linked document is for the Old Math I, II and III alignment but demonstrates that the current standards offer students opportunities to achieve at high levels of success on the ACT. (ACT and Math Standards Correlation )

2013 Math Task Force

- Decision to move to single integrated pathway - presentation to SBE

https://eboard.eboardsolutions.com/Meetings/ViewMeetingOrder.aspx?S=10399&MID=841

**Research Supporting Integrated Mathematics**

- Students who take integrated high school mathematics courses perform as well or higher than students taking traditional high school mathematics courses (Chavez et al., 2015; Grouws et al., 2013; Krupa & Confrey, 2015; Tarr et al., 2013)
- Students who take integrated high school mathematics are just as prepared for college mathematics coursework as students taking traditional high school mathematics courses, including STEM fields (Harwell, Medanie, Post, Norman, & Dupuis, 2011)
- Minority and economically-disadvantaged students perform better when taking integrated high school mathematics courses (Krupa & Confrey, 2015)

- Hanover Research Synthesis on Integrated Mathematics

This is a synthesis of the research of many. The entire report can be found by accessing the link. Of particular note within this document is the following quote: “Studies show that integrated math instruction positively impacts mathematics achievement. Four experimental studies examined in this report found that students enrolled in integrated math courses outperformed students enrolled in traditional math courses. Although the countries that outperform the United States in mathematics typically rely on an integrated curriculum, empirical evidence has not definitively attributed this variation in achievement levels to the choice of course sequence. Integrated math courses help students develop a deeper understanding of mathematical concepts and an appreciation for the relevance of these concepts to the real world. Often, real world math problems incorporate concepts from multiple subjects; likewise, integrated math courses teach students to think about math in an applied, interconnected manner. Students in integrated courses gain a greater understanding of mathematical concepts due to the repetition of concepts throughout multiple courses and in the context of related topics (e.g., algebra, geometry, and statistics).” - “Students need to see mathematics as an integrated whole, with connections across the

content domains, and they need to experience some of the applications and uses

of mathematics before they transition to college. And the United States

will never show well in international comparisons of mathematics performance as

long as other countries have an integrated mathematics, and we take a “layer

cake” approach. In this country, we have an unprecedented opportunity over the

next few years to integrate the content of our secondary mathematics, and we

should do everything we can to make the most of that opportunity.” http://www.nctm.org/News-and-Calendar/Messages-from-the-President/Archive/J_-Michael-Shaughnessy/An-Opportune-Time-to-Consider-Integrated-Mathematics/ - Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, published by the National Council of Teachers of

Mathematics (NCTM) in 2000, strongly recommends integrating mathematical topics both in mathematics courses and in other subjects. This integrated approach, used internationally, enables students to view major mathematical ideas from more than one perspective as well as use a variety of tools and approaches in trying to understand new topics or solve problems. https://www.nctm.org/Handlers/AttachmentHandler.ashx?attachmentID=dKkXCXO6sRg%3D - Integrated math has growing support in the mathematics-education community. A study published in the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education last year tracked students over three years and

found that those who were being taught with an integrated-math curriculum outperformed their counterparts who were in a traditional sequence. "We can't say why, [but] the fact that they did [perform better] is an indication that curriculum matters," said James E. Tarr, a professor of mathematics education at the University of Missouri, in Columbia, and one of the study's authors. "Since our results have come out, I have heard from people throughout the world who did not find our results to be surprising." http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2014/11/12/12cc-integratedmath.h34.html - A broad and integrated vision of high school mathematics would serve our students better than the narrow and compartmentalized structure of traditional programs. Improved performance on international assessments like PISA are likely to result from moves toward curricula and teaching methods that balance and integrate mathematical techniques, understanding, and applications. http://www.nctm.org/Publications/mathematics-teacher/2014/Vol107/Issue7/mt2014-03-488a_pdf/
- The Effects of Content Organization and Curriculum Implementation on Students’ Mathematics

Learning in Second-Year High School Courses The historical underperformance of U.S. students on international tests of mathematics achievement will likely continue to heighten public awareness and public scrutiny of school mathematics. As pressure increases to improve student achievement, curriculum will continue to be considered the primary leverage for change, as has been the case for decades. By partnering with schools that offered dual curricular paths, the COSMIC project was uniquely positioned to study the effectiveness of integrated and subject-specific mathematics programs over time. Our research design enabled us to ascertain complex relationships between curriculum organization, curriculum implementation, and student learning. Results of our initial study of students’ learning in first-year high school mathematics courses (Grouws et al., 2013) showed that students in the integrated curriculum significantly outperformed those studying from a subject-specific curriculum on multiple outcome measures. Furthermore, the results reported herein continue to underscore the value of an integrated curricular program in second-year high school mathematics courses. Although numerous student characteristics and teacher practices and characteristics are associated with the learned curriculum, our series of studies has collectively determined that curriculum organization and its implementation are indeed key elements in efforts to increase students’ learning in first- and second year high school mathematics. Summary of this research paper can be found at: